Biology 101 Life on Planet Earth
Paper # 1(due 27 Feb '98)
Paper # 2(due 6 April, 1998)
Evolution Links
Creationist Links

Paper # 1 - A review of Richard Dawkins' River Out of Eden

This paper should be 2 pages long, typed (double spaced), and include a clear INTRODUCTION, main body, and summary paragraph. The topic of the paper is your review of Dawkins' book. Yes, it is your own opinion - but (if you want a grade of "C" or better) PLEASE try and keep your comments related to Dawkins book. I expect you to give a summary of what you feel are the main arguments that Dawkins puts forth in the book, and why you agree (or disagree) with what he says. I've included a few links to some reader's comments and reviews of The River Out of Eden.

The rest of the page contains other links on Evolution that will be useful in our discussions in class over the next several weeks after Spring break, and could be useful to you in writing paper # 2, where you will be comparing Richard Dawkins perspective with that of Stephen Jay Gould.

Please remember that paper # 1 is due by 5:00 p.m. on Friday, 27-Feb-98.

Richard Dawkins' River Out of Eden
(click here for lots of Reader's comments on Dawkins' book.)

Link to a page with several reviews of Dawkins' River Out of Eden
Man with insect eyes
Other Books by Richard Dawkins

The Selfish Gene (1976).

BlindWatchmakerThe Blind Watchmaker (1986).

The Extended Phenotype (1991).

Climbing Mt. Improbable (1996).
Climbing Mt. Improbable

Fossil DragonflyPaper # 2 - A Comparison of Richard Dawkins' River Out of Eden
and Stephen Jay Gould's
The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin
This paper should be at least 5 pages long, typed (double spaced), and include a clear INTRODUCTION, main body, and summary paragraph. The topic of the paper is a discussion of the two different versions of evolution, described by Richard Dawkins (River Out of Eden) and Stephen Jay Gould (FULL HOUSE).

Once again, it is expected that your reports will be typed (please number your pages and staple your final report). You should use the same citation format as from the first paper (e.g., Gould, S.J., "FULL HOUSE : The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin", (Random House, New York, 1996)). Also, I've included a section below on how to cite WEB locations. You are certainly welcome to use Web sites in your bibliography - in fact I think this is probably a good thing. My only request is that AT LEAST three of your references come from books or articles (you already have two of the three: Dawkins' and Gould's books).

Work Required
Min. #
Min. #
Compare & contrast Gould & Dawkins,
plus include (briefly at least) one other alternative view (see below).
< 5
Compare OR contrast Gould & Dawkins
< 10
Write a summary of Gould & a summary of Dawkins
< 15
Write a summary of Gould's book
< 20

Here is a link to a paper on these two books, written by Charlene Waybright earlier this semester (Spring '98) (As part of her Independent Research project).

Please remember that paper # 2 is due by 5:00 p.m. on Friday, 3 April, 1998.

Full House book cover
Stephen Jay Gould's FULL HOUSE
(click here for lots of Reader's comments on Gould's book.)

Other books by Stephen Jay Gould:

Five KingdomsMargulis,L., Gould, S.J., Schwartz, K.V. "Five Kingdoms : An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth", (W. H. Freeman & Co., San Fransisco, 1998).

Fossils bookEldredge,N., Alcosser,M., Gould, S.J., "Fossils : The Evolution and Extinction of Species", (Princeton University Press, New Jersey,& Company, New York, 1997).

Gould, S.J., "Questioning the Millennium : A Rationalist's Guide to a Precisely Arbitrary Countdown", (Random House, San Fransisco, 1997).

Gould, S.J., "Dinosaur in a Haystack : Reflections in Natural History" (Crown Publisher, New York, 1997).

Purcell, R.W., Gould, S.J., "Finders, Keepers : Eight Collectors", (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1994).

Eight Little PiggiesGould, S.J., "Eight Little Piggies : Reflections in Natural History", (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1994).

Gould, S.J., "Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes", (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1994).

Gould, S.J., "The Book of Life: An Illustrated History of the Evolution of Life on Earth" (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1993).

Mismeasure of ManGould, S.J., "The Mismeasure of Man", (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1993).

Panda's ThumbGould, S.J., "The Panda's Thumb : More Reflections in Natural History", (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1992).

Ever Since Darwin Gould, S.J., "Ever Since Darwin : Reflections in Natural History", (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1992).

Bully for BrontosaurusGould, S.J., "Bully for Brontosaurus : Reflections in Natural History",(W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1991).

Wonderful LifeGould, S.J., "Wonderful Life : The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History",(W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1990).

Gould, S.J., "The Flamingo's Smile : Reflections in Natural History", (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1987).

Gould, S.J., "Ontogeny and Phylogeny", (Belknap Press, New York, 1985).

Evolution Links

Links from the class textbook
("Life on Earth", by Audesirk & Audesirk)

Hyperlinks to Chapter 16- Principles of Evolution
Hyperlinks to Chapter 17 - How Organisims Evolve
Hyperlinks to Chapter 18 - The Origins of the Species
Hyperlinks to Chapter 19 - The History of Life on Earth
Hyperlinks to Chapter 20 - Taxonomy:
Imposing Order on Diversity

Outline for Unit 3 from
Biology 101 syllabus

Charles Darwin, On-line
Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Characters
Volume 2: Character Evolution
List of top 50 books on link(
Darwin's Black Box
#1 bestseller: Reviews (several of them!) of Darwin's Black Box : The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution
by Michael J. Behe
#2 bestseller: Reviews (several of them!) of
Darwin's Dangerous Idea : Evolution and the Meanings of Life
by Daniel C. Dennett

Top 20 books (bestsellers) in Evolution, from
(27 March, 1998)

1. Darwin's Black Box : The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution
Michael J. Behe / Hardcover / Published 1996
note: the paperback version of this has come out (March 1998). Presently (27 March, 1998) the paperback is #22 on the list, and rising!)

2. Darwin's Dangerous Idea : Evolution and the Meanings of Life
Daniel C. Dennett / Paperback / Published 1996

3. The Dragons of Eden : Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence Carl Sagan / Mass Market Paperback / Published 1989

BlindWatchmaker4. The Blind Watchmaker : Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design, Richard Dawkins / Paperback / Published 1996

5. The Third Chimpanzee, Jared Diamond / Paperback / Published 1993

Darwin on Trial6. Darwin on Trial
Phillip E. Johnson, Phillip Johnson / Paperback / Published 1993

7. Huxley : From Devil's Disciple to Evolution's High Priest
Adrian Desmond / Hardcover / Published 1997

Beak of the Finch8. The Beak of the Finch : A Story of Evolution in Our Time
Jonathan Weiner / Paperback / Published 1995

9. Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language
R. I. M. Dunbar / Hardcover / Published 1997

animated arrow10. Full House : The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin
Stephen Jay Gould / Paperback / Published 1997

animated arrow11. River Out of Eden : A Darwinian View of Life (Science Masters Series)
Richard Dawkins, Lalla Ward (Illustrator) / Paperback / Published 1996

12. From Lucy to Language
Donald Johanson, et al / Hardcover / 1996

13. The Great Human Diasporas : The History of Diversity and Evolutionships
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, et al / Paperback / 1996

Climbing Mt. Improbable14. Climbing Mount Improbable
Richard Dawkins / Hardcover / Published 1996

15. African Exodus : The Origins of Modern Humanity
Christopher Stringer, Robin McKie / Hardcover / 1997

16. Dinosaur in a Haystack : Reflections in Natural History
Stephen Jay Gould / Paperback / 1997

17. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors : A Search for Who We Are
Carl Sagan, Ann Druyan / Paperback / 1993

18. The Extended Phenotype : The Long Reach of the Gene
Richard Dawkins / Paperback / 1990

19. The Cartoon Guide to Genetics
Larry Gonick, Mark Wheelis / Paperback / 1991

Wonderful life20. Wonderful Life : The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History
Stephen Jay Gould, Stephen Gould / Paperback / 1990

Still under construction!

Under Construction!

First, I want to mention TWO things about the web:

The first point is a bit about the use & reliability of the internet. Of course, just because something is on the web doesn't mean that it is necessarily true, nor does it even mean that MOST people believe it to be true. You're just looking at what someone has typed (or copied) in to the computer. Here are a couple of links that might be of interest, and also include a bit about how to cite web sites in a bibliography. (These links were kindly given to me by Dr. Brian Pedersen.) PLEASE have a look at the following sites first!

Evaluating Internet Research Sources
Evaluation of INFORMATION Sources
Bibliography on Evaluating Internet Resources

The second point is about the temptation to "download" a paper for your assignment. I would like to point out an article from the Washington Post (5 November, 1997) - please remember that doing this is certainly dishonest, and if I happen to catch a student trying to do this for my 101 class, they can rely on two things happening: 1.) they will get a grade of "0" for the paper, and 2.) I am obliged under contract to report the event to the dean's office....

University Tries to Pull Plug on Internet Term-Paper Mills

By Rene Sanchez
Washington Post Staff Writer
Wednesday, November 5, 1997; Page A01
The Washington Post

Beth Bookwalter wanted a term paper, fast, so she roamed the
Internet in search of help. It wasn't hard to find.

She reached eight companies through their Web sites, paid fees
ranging from $45 to $175, and within days had what she needed,
a report on a Toni Morrison novel.

But Bookwalter was not just another desperate, procrastinating
college student.

She was working undercover for Boston University. And the
evidence she gathered about the flourishing online term-paper
industry is now part of an extraordinary lawsuit that has
captured the attention of campuses across the nation....

The evolution links listed on the rest of this page are ones that I have found, or that have been given to me by students in my biology 101 course (Autumn, 1997). I have not read through all of them, and they often will present conflicting points of view. Thus they cannot possibly all be in agreement with each other, or reflect any one set of personal beliefs. They are meant to be a starting point for ideas and discussions for your papers.

General Resources on Evolution
EVOLUTION - from The World Wide Web Virtual Library
Link to Ed Babinski's page

Monday, 10 November, 1997
Modern man traced to mutant DNA

By Steve Sternberg / USA Today

Researchers say they've found the origin of a genetic feature
that sets modern man apart from prehistoric ancestors -- the
modern male sex chromosome.
The chromosome, a Y-shaped bundle of DNA that turns an
embryo into a male, dates to Africa 150,000 years ago, Peter
Underhill told the American Society for Human Genetics on
Underhill said the modern Y chromosome diverged from an
ancestral version still found in 10 percent of Ethiopians, 25
percent of Sudanese and 33 percent of the Khoisan tribe in
southern Africa. "Nobody else in the world or in Africa has the
ancestral (variant)," Underhill said.
Douglas Wallace of Emory University in Atlanta said the new
findings support a growing body of genetic research tracing the
origins of humanity "back to a common founding population in
Africa about 150,000 years ago."
The newer variant appears to have resulted from a chance
DNA mutation. This mutation involved the substitution of one
biochemical for another on one rung of the twisted ladder that
forms the Y chromosome. . . .

Dinosaur-Bird Theory Doesn't Add Up, Some Researchers Say

Evolution in the Milky Way (a bit technical...)
Tectonic Evolution of the Atlas Mountains, North Africa
Evolution & Behaviour
Anthropology 1101 - this is a chance to have a look at the course syllabus for an introductory anthropology course.
Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution
Mitochondrial DNA Evolution
Social Evolution
drawing kindly provided by Ashley R. Dorr
Theistic Evolution - Is God & Evolution compatible?

"Evolution" as a religion (& "Creationism" links)
A list of Books on Evolution/Creationism
A "journal" on Evolution/Creationism

The Creationism Controversy: Related Links
A really good site, with perhaps a HUNDRED links on Creationism:

Related Internet Links

NOTE: These links represent Pro and Anti Creation/Evolution points of view - they are provided as a resource for research:

[ Back to the Creation Page ]

Web Site Category
General Science and Evolution Web sites that deal with general science topics from a mainstream scientific perspective -- especially sites with relevance to evolution
Pro-Evolution or Anti-Creationism
Web sites that approach the creation/evolution controversy from an evolutionary or anti-creationist perspective
Pro-Creationism or Anti-Evolution
Web sites that approach the creation/evolution controversy from a creationist or anti-evolution perspective
Catastrophism Web sites supporting catastrophist and neo-catastrophist interpretations of natural history
Natural History Museums Web sites run by natural history museums
Critical Thought Web sites that take a sceptical approach to extraordinary claims related Web sites that are relevant to the Usenet newsgroup
Palaeontology Sites on general Palaeontology

General Science and Evolution
Web sites that deal with general science topics from a mainstream scientific perspective -- especially sites with relevance to evolution

Five Major Misconceptions of Evolution
Scientific Creationism vs. Atheistic Evolution
The FACTS of evolution vs. the THEORY of Evolution
The Modern Synthesis of Genetics & Evolution
Creationism/Evolution discussions
Bill before state Senate to REQUIRE teaching of evolution
The Shell Game of Evolution and Creation
A list of transition fossils to counter creationist's claim they don't exist!
The Revolution Against Evolution
The End of the World!
(Thursday, 23 October, 1997)

Some additional links suggested by Millie Meachum:

The Scopes 'Monkey Trial' - July 10, 1925 - July 25, 1925

Setting the Stage: The Butler Law

As America emerged from World War I, a collective nostalgia swept the country for the relative simplicity and "normalcy" of prewar society . In rural areas, particularly in the South and Midwest, Americans turned to their faith for comfort and stability, and fundamentalist religion soared in popularity. Fundamentalists, who believed in a literal interpretation of the Bible, locked into Darwin and the theory of evolution as "the most present threat to the truth they were sure they alone possessed" (1). With evolution as the enemy, they set out to eradicate it from their society, beginning with the education system.

The Revolution Against Evolution

(same as above - I already had found this one!)

The Center for Scienctific Creation

The Center for Scientific Creation is a non-profit organization located in Phoenix, Arizona, dedicated to origins research. The questions below and many others are answered in a new book by Dr. Brown entitled In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood. Some questions are answered right here. Enjoy browsing our Web site. . .

Why I Disbelieve Evolution

©1996 Darel Rex Finley. This article may be freely distributed so long as it is not modified or abridged. The author of this article is not affiliated with any persons, companies or products mentioned herein.


Today, we live in a global society in which naturalistic evolution is widely presumed to be the known mechanism by which complex life came into being. Belief in evolution is heavily associated with the scientific attitude, and it is pervasively implied that people who doubt evolution are superstitious or willfully ignorant. The situation is not helped by a small contingent of biblical literalists who seem to
steal the limelight from more rational doubters, or are willfully given that limelight by a pro-evolution media.

In such an atmosphere, I feel obligated to present a rational explanation of my disbelief, both to deflect the impression that I am irrational, and to encourage other disbelievers to be unafraid to express their opinion on the subject.

Unmasking The False Religion of Evolution
Based on the fact filled, and exciting seminars
of Dr. Kent Hovind.
Robert T. Weaver and Shirley Norris
Chapter 1

How Old Is The Earth?

There are four great questions every one is trying to answer in life.

There is a war in progress with two opposing world views, or the way that one looks at the world. Your belief will determine how you are going to behave. If you believe the evolutionist world view, that says man is just an animal and that we got here by blind random change, your answers to these four great questions are different from the creationist world view. Who am I? Well, if you believe in evolution, you are nothing important. You are just a bit of protoplasm that washed upon the beach a couple of million years ago. Where did I come from? If you are an evolutionist, you came from a cosmic burp about 20 million years ago. Where am I going when this life is over? Don't worry about it. You will just go back to star dust. . .

Teaching Creationism to Children
Taken from the book "Creation Activities for Kids"

General Suggestions

Following are some excellent practical suggestions for teaching children about creation, evolution, and Genesis. The ideas in this section come from the work of women very experienced teaching children about creation in both church and school settings. The ideas here are based on various workshops conducted on how to teach creation.

Addressing creation and evolution can be a frightening subject. Often, parents and children's workers don't know how to answer the creation-related questions asked by children. Because evolution is accepted in our society and taught in public schools, this tends over a period of years to lead children away from faith in the Bible. So, it is important to address creation versus evolution so that children understand that all of the Bible can be trusted and learn about God's greatness as Creator. It can be a great joy to do this with kids if some preparation is put into it and if a hands-on approach is used. It does require a lot of planning. A "hands-on approach" means using a variety of materials, crafts, and resources to give the children tangible things they can see and touch and do that will reinforce creation concepts. As in any children's ministry, music is very important. In relation to creation, music serves to help kids appreciate the beauty and order that God made and worship Him in response to it.

People teaching creation to children do not have to be science experts. Rather, they should be able to enjoy learning with the kids. This cannot be stressed too much. It is OK if you have to say "I don't know, I'll have to look into that" in response to a child's question. Of course, the responsibility of teaching children should not be taken too lightly, but you cannot let it stop you that you are not an expert. Rather, be willing to learn and let God use you. So, in teaching kids about creation, let go, GET EXCITED, and enjoy yourself! It is also best many times to use questions to lead kids in their thinking so that they can discover truths for themself rather than just listening.

The Creation Concept
By Douglas Cox

God said, "Let there be light", and there was.
"Let there be earth", and there was.
[Ps. Longinus, quoting "the lawgiver of the Jews".]


Report on the Firmament - One of the greatest puzzles connected with the Creation story in the first chapter of Genesis is the identity of the 'firmament' that God made on the second day.

Contents of Report on the Firmament

TheTraditional Explanation
The Rigid Sky in Greek Philosophy
Temples of Zeus
The Letter of Aristeas
Antiochus and the Jews
Ezekiel's Firmament
Varro on Pagan Religion
The Firmament in New Testament Times
A Quotation from On the Sublime
The Christian Era: Domed Cathedrals
The Demise of the Firmament
Daniel's 2,300 Days
The Search for the Firmament
Waters Above the Heavens?
Canopy Theories
Conclusion & Bibliography

Genesis 1 Restored
Analysis of Genesis 1
Parallel Creation Accounts in Scripture
More Parallel Creation Accounts
Psalm 19 Restored

The Drift
Drumlins and Diluvial Currents
Controversy about the Glacial Theory

Sir J. W. Dawson's Dissent from the Glacial Theory
Giant Current Ripples in Ontario's Bruce Peninsula
Directional Erosion Evidence in Lake Huron
Michigan's Fossil Whales
Raphael Pumpelly on secular rock disintegration

Cylindrical Pillars
Pothole Origins
Pillars in Drift Gravel
Pillars, Polystrate Formations, and Potholes
Problems in the Glacial Theory
Niagara Gorge
Sandstone Dikes
Subcrustal Ice Earth Model
The Heat of the Earth
Human Fossils and the Flood
Thomas Burnet and 'The Sacred Theory of the Earth'
George McCready Price
Classic Threads
Origins and Creation related Links
Search Engines and other Utilities
Deborah's Bible Studies
Daniel's 70 Weeks
The Antichrist-for-a-day Award


Our mission: to share the evidence for creation through videos, books, literature and seminars.We are a registered charity (no. 1016666) and a member of the Evangelical Alliance. We exist as an educational and resource organisation to help both Christians and non-Christians find out the facts about creation and evolution. We offer a wide range of videos, books, and literature for all ages, including a lending library of videos and audio-casettes. We also provide speakers for meetings and seminars, and arrange all-age ‘Creation Discovery Days’.

We invite you to contact us — by post at Mead Farm, Downhead, West Camel, Yeovil, Somerset, BA22 7RQ, England

The latest issue of our children's paper ‘Our World’ (No. 45), discusses the ‘big bang’ theory, and explains that the ‘2nd. Law of Thermodynamics’ would not allow things to evolve from hydrogen gas to humans. Everything in the universe is going downhill, while evolution theory has to have things getting more complex with the passing of time. Attention is drawn to the vast number of stars in the heavens, and that the God who created them love us as individuals. We should look to HIM for guidance, not the stars (astrology is forbidden in the Bible). The impossibility of things getting more complex is illustrated in cartoon style by our artist Michael Huggins. There is a ‘Tom and Jenny’ story about a visit to a Sea Life Centre, specially featuring rays, and a ‘Weird and Wonderful’ article aboutTree Frogs. ‘Our World’ is published every quarter and available by subscription. Back issues are also available.

The Final Countdown?


No, it isn't the final countdown of the Space Shuttle Columbia. It's the countdown to
the ushering in of a new era. You've probably heard it mentioned before, the
Millennium --One thousand years of peace.(1) With so much turmoil in the world,
you're probably wondering how there could be peace for a day, let alone a thousand years. The answer to this bewildering thought can be found in Bible prophecy. There are, of course, individuals who believe the Bible to be inaccurate, contradictory, or simply untrue. Perhaps their opinions will change after reading the following prophetic events and their fulfillment.

"Links to Links" - Some good pages with lots of links:


Subcategories include: Genes within Populations, The Evidence for Evolution, The Origin of the
Species, and Evolutionary History of the Earth.

from "MINIMUM" Level: Kindergarten to "MINIMUM" Level: Graduate students

Network Resources in the Historical Sciences

THE LIST OF LINKS below will allow you to connect to a variety of network resources in the
historical sciences. It is not a complete inventory of such resources; rather, it is a collection of starting
points that may help researchers who specialize in some particular branch of palaetiology to discover
what sorts of things are available in related disciplines.

The History of Evolution
in Terms of Metasystem Transitions


The basic idea underlying PCP is that evolution leads to the spontaneous emergence of systems of higher and higher complexity or "intelligence": from elementary particles, via atoms, molecules, living cells, multicellular organisms, plants, and animals to human beings, culture and society. This gives us a
view of the history of evolution as a kind of progression towards higher complexity (albeit essentially unpredictable, with many side-tracks and dead-ends). Such an encompassing view may allow us to answer the basic questions: "Who are we? Where do we come from? Where are we going to?" (The
last question requires an extrapolation of this development towards the future.)

Although the growth of complexity during evolution is not universal (many systems evolve towards higher simplicity), it appears as the most striking factor from a long-term perspective. Most of the time this complexity increase, and evolution in general, occurs rather slowly or continuously, but during certain periods evolution accelerates spectacularly. This results in changes which from a long term perspective may be viewed as momentous events, separating discrete types of organization. Each time a higher level of control or organization has developed we say that a Metasystem Transition (MST) has taken place.

The MST concept makes it possible to reconstruct the sequence of evolutionary events from the beginnning of time to the present as a partially ordered series of metasystem transitions. These transitions can be roughly classified in four categories or "tracks":

1.Prebiotic: the developments taking place before the origin of the life, i.e. the emergence of physico-chemical complexity: the Big Bang, space and time, energy and particles, atoms and the different elements, molecules up to organic polymers, simple dissipative structures.
2.Biological: the origin of life and the further development of the specifically biological aspects of it: DNA, reproduction, autopoiesis, prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes, multicellularity, sexual reproduction, the species.
3.Cognitive: the origin of mind, i.e. the basic cybernetic, cognitive organization, going from simple reflexes to complex nervous systems, learning, and thought.
4.Social: the development of social systems and culture: communication, cooperation, moral systems, memes

Although most of the transitions taken place sequentially within each main track, and these track emerge roughly in the order they are presented here, there is also essential interaction between the categories. For example, communication and cooperation between organisms (social track) takes place
before rational thought (cognitive track) emerges, and is in a mutual positive feedback relation with that cognitive transition. Similarly, sexual reproduction (biological) appears in parallel with the emergence of reflexes (cognitive) and influences the appearance of social cooperation via its formation of family

For a chronology of some of these transitions, see the Cosmological and Evolutionary/Geological

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Last updated on 12 September, 1999 by David Ussery